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Emi ka Leo


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POSTED: Saturday, July 11, 2009

Synopsis: In 1778, ethnic Hawaiians numbered nearly 1 million and spoke only Hawaiian. All subjects became literate in the 1800s. Today, native speakers number perhaps 500. What accounts for this decline?

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Kākau 'o Samuel Kamakau lāua 'o David Stannard no ka heluna kanaka Hawai'i 'ōiwi i ka wā i hiki mai ai ka haole i ka MH 1778 a kuhi 'ia he 'elua haneli kaukani a ho'okahi miliona a 'oi paha ka heluna. He 'ōlelo Hawai'i wale nō ka po'e kānaka. I kēia lā, malia paha he 'elima haneli ka heluna po'e 'ōlelo Hawai'i kumu.

Ua 'ano nui 'ino nō nā kumu i emi ai ka 'ōlelo. I ka hiki 'ana mai o nā mikionali i ka 1820, kūkulu lākou he mau kula no ke a'o 'ana i ka lehulehu i ka 'ōlelo Pelekānia a me ka 'euanelio. Ma ka ho'omaka 'ana, ua hoihoi ka lehulehu i ke a'o i ka 'ōlelo Pelekānia no kona mea hou, akā, ma hope mai, ua koikoi 'ia ka lehulehu e a'o i ka 'ōlelo Pelekānia e nā kumu kula.

Ma hope o nā makahiki 1820, kūkulu 'ia nā kula i a'o 'ia ma ka 'ōlelo Hawai'i, akā, ua 'ike koke 'ia ka nele o nā hua'ōlelo no ke a'o 'ana i nā mea hou o ka honua e like me ka makemakika, nā hana akeakamai, a pēlā aku nō. Ua lohi ka haku 'ia o nā hua'ōlelo e lawa ai nā ha'awina a pau, no laila, ua nui ka ho'ohana 'ia o nā puke 'ōlelo Pelekānia. Ua nui nō ho'i ka 'oko'a o nā mana'o o nā kupa no ka paipai 'ana i ka 'ōlelo Hawai'i ma nā kula. 'O kekahi 'ao'ao, makemake nui nā mākua e kālele 'ia ka 'ōlelo Makuahine o ka lāhui, akā, mana'o nō ho'i kekahi mau mākua Hawai'i 'a'ole ia he 'ōlelo holomua loa.

Ma kahi o nā makahiki 1840, ua loli ka mana'o o ka 'Ekalesia a kālele nui 'ia ka 'ōlelo Hawai'i ma kahi o ka 'ōlelo Pelekānia ma ka hālāwai pule, koe kekahi po'e kāhuna pule i paipai i ka 'ōlelo Pelekānia. A ho'ohuli 'ia ka po'e Hawai'i i ka 'euanelio a nā mikionali, mālama lākou i nā kumumana'o'i'o o ka 'Ekalesia, akā, uhai ka nui i ka mana'o ua 'oi a'e ka holomua o ka 'ōlelo Pelekānia ma mua o ka 'ōlelo Hawai'i, no laila, ho'omaka nā mākua e paipai i kā lākou mau keiki e mālama i ka 'ōlelo Pelekānia.

'A'ole nā luna aupuni o ke Aupuni Mō'ī i 'aelike no ka paipai 'ia o ka 'ōlelo Hawai'i a 'a'ole i kūkulu 'ia kekahi kānāwai no ka paipai 'ana i ka 'ōlelo. Ua paipai kekahi po'e kānaka o ke aupuni e mālama 'ia ka 'ōlelo Hawai'i, akā, i nā makahiki 1880, ho'opuka nō kekahi po'e o ke aupuni i ka mana'o he make mai koe ka 'ōlelo Hawai'i.

Ma waenakonu o nā makahiki 1800, kūkulu 'ia nā kula i a'o 'ia ma ka 'ōlelo Pelekānia no nā keiki a nā mikionali 'ili ke'oke'o ma mua, a laila, no ka lehulehu ma hope. I ka hapa o hope o ia kenekulia, ua pi'i ka heluna o nā keiki Hawai'i ma nā kula 'ōlelo Pelekānia a pi'i pū ka ho'olako 'ia o ia mau kula i ke kālā na ke Aupuni Mō'ī a 'oi a'e i nā kula 'ōlelo Hawai'i. Ua lilo kēia he pilikia ko'iko'i no nā kula 'ōlelo Hawai'i a ua pi'i ke kānalua o nā po'e he nui i ke ola o ka 'ōlelo Hawai'i.

E ho'omau 'ia.

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E ho'ouna 'ia mai nā leka iā māua, 'o ia ho'i 'o Laiana Wong a me Kekeha Solis ma ka pahu leka uila ma lalo nei:  » .(JavaScript must be enabled to view this email address)

» .(JavaScript must be enabled to view this email address)

a i ‘ole ia, ma ke kelepona:

» 956-2627 (Laiana)

» 956-2624 (Kekeha)

This column is coordinated by the Hawaiian Language Department at the University of Hawai'i at Mānoa, supported by the Initiative for Achieving Native Hawaiian Academic Excellence.