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Ua Pa‘a ko ke Kanaka Maoli ‘Āina


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POSTED: Saturday, March 14, 2009

Synopsis: The Constitution clarifies who owns land in Hawai‘i.

 


‘A‘ohe nō paha kumuhana ho‘oluhi mana‘o nui loa o ka pae‘āina nei i kēia wā e like me ka ‘ona ‘āina ‘ana. Lilo i ka ‘Amelika ka ho‘onohonoho ‘āina ‘ana me ka ho‘olohe ‘ole ho‘i i ke kānāwai o ia ‘āina, ke Aupuni Mō‘ī, a me ke kānāwai kau ma luna o nā ‘āina like ‘ole. ‘O nā maka‘āinana o ke Aupuni Mō‘ī ka i ho‘onele ‘ia.

Ma ke Kumu Kānāwai o ka MH 1840, ho‘ākāka ‘ia ke kuleana ‘āina. ‘O ka Mō‘ī ke po‘o o ke aupuni, akā, māhele ‘ia ka ‘ona ‘āina ‘ana ma waena o ke aupuni, nā konohiki, a me nā maka‘āinana ‘ōiwi. He konohiki nō ho‘i ka Mō‘ī a nāna ho‘onohonoho i ka ‘āina.

Kūkulu ‘ia ke Komikina Kuleana ‘Āina i ka MH 1845 no ka ho‘okolokolo ‘ana i nā nīnau no ka māhele ‘āina ‘ana mai ka wā iā Kamehameha I a hiki i ka 1845. I ka 1848, kūkulu ‘ia ka ‘oihana Māhele Nui no ka ho‘oponopono ‘ana i ka nui o kēlā me kēia māhele ‘āina e māhelehele ai ma waena o ke aupuni, nā konohiki a me nā maka‘āinana ‘ōiwi. Ua pa‘a ke kuleana ‘ona ‘āina o kēlā me kēia kanaka ‘ōiwi ma ke Kumu Kānāwai, no laila, ‘a‘ohe wahi nele o ke kanaka ‘ōiwi i ka ‘āina ma ka Māhele Nui.

Hā‘awi ‘ia nā konohiki a pau, me ka Mō‘ī pū, ko lākou mau ‘āpana ‘āina me ka ili pū aku o ia mau kuleana ‘āina i luna o kā lākou mau mamo a ho‘oilina no ka wā mau loa a he kuleana hemo ‘ole kēia ma ke Kumu Kānāwai. I ka wā o ka Māhele Nui, helu ‘ia 253 po‘e konohiki. No laila, he mea nui loa ka hana mo‘okū‘auhau i kēia lā i hiki i nā ‘ōiwi o kēia wā ke hō‘oia‘i‘o i ko lākou mau ‘āpana ‘āina inā he mamo kekahi na kekahi konohiki o ia wā. Māhelehele like ‘ia ke koena o ka ‘āina ma waena o ke aupuni a me nā maka‘āinana ‘ōiwi a pau loa.

Ma ke kānāwai pili i nā lāhui ‘ē o ka 1850, ‘ae ‘ia ka po‘e lāhui ‘ē i ka palapala ‘alolio kekahi. Ma ke Kānāwai Kuleana o ka 1850, ‘ae ‘ia nā maka‘āinana ‘ōiwi e māhele aku i ‘āpana ‘āina no lākou he hapahā ‘eka ka nui mai nā ‘āpana mai o nā konohiki a i ‘ole ke aupuni.

Ho‘omaopopo ‘ia a hiki i kēia wā, i ka MH 1893, ua ‘ona ‘ia ma kahi o 1.2 miliona ‘eka ‘āina e ka po‘e ‘ōiwi he konohiki a maka‘āinana paha, a ka‘a ma kahi o 1.3 miliona ‘eka i ke aupuni. He 4.2 miliona ‘eka ka huina ‘eka o ka pae‘āina nei, no laila, aia ka hapa nui o ka ‘āina ma lalo o ka po‘e kānaka ‘ōiwi Hawai‘i.

Ua hō‘oia ‘ia e ka ‘Aha ‘Uao Pa‘a o Hague i ka 2001 he ‘āina kū‘oko‘a ke Aupuni Mō‘ī o Hawai‘i a ‘a‘ohe wahi hō‘ike o ‘Amelika i ka hui ‘ana o ia mau ‘āina ‘elua a lilo i ho‘okahi a hiki i kēia manawa, no ka mea, ‘a‘ohe nō ku‘ikahi ho‘ohui ‘āina.

I ka wā o ka noho koa ‘ana o ka ‘Amelika ma ka pae‘āina nei, na lākou e ho‘okō i nā kānāwai o ke Aupuni Mō‘ī e pono ai ke kānāwai o ka noho koa ‘ana a penei e piha hou ai nā kūlana luna aupuni o ke Aupuni Mō‘ī. ‘A‘ohe loli o ke kūlana o nā kuleana ‘āina i nā kānaka ‘ōiwi o ke Aupuni Mō‘ī mai ka MH 1893 mai. No laila, he home nō ko kēlā me kēia kanaka ‘ōiwi e ho‘i ai a noho.

 


E ho'ouna 'ia mai nā leka iā māua, 'o ia ho'i 'o Laiana Wong a me Kekeha Solis ma ka pahu leka uila ma lalo nei:

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This column is coordinated by the Hawaiian Language Department at the University of Hawai'i at Mānoa, supported by the Initiative for Achieving Native Hawaiian Academic Excellence.